However, the latest resolution fell short of the complete oil embargo called for in an earlier USA -drafted resolution, which would have needed the support of veto-wielding members China and Russian Federation.
"To the contrary, it throws gasoline on the fire for which we express protest and regret", Kim added before declining to take questions from reporters. "We are not looking for war", US Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley told the council after the vote.
"The North Korean regime has not yet passed the point of no return", she added.
"If it agrees to stop its nuclear programme, it can reclaim its future. if North Korea continues its risky path, we will continue with further pressure", said Haley, who credited a "strong relationship" between US President Donald Trump and Chinese President Xi Jinping for the successful resolution negotiations.
Earlier, North Korea said it would not accept any chastisement over its weapons development, which it says is vital to stave off the threat of an American invasion.
North Korea today vowed to accelerate its weapons programme in response to the "evil" sanctions imposed by the UN Security Council after its latest and most powerful test. Almost 80% went to China. "If it agrees to stop its nuclear program, it can reclaim its future".
Mr Trump welcomed the fact that the measures had been agreed unanimously by all 15 members of the council but said they were "nothing compared to what ultimately will have to happen".
"The US needs to switch from isolation to communication in order to end an "endless loop" on the Korean peninsula where "nuclear and missile tests trigger tougher sanctions and tougher sanctions invite further tests", Xinhua said". "If North Korea continues its risky path, we will continue with further pressure".
The 15-member council based in NY approved Resolution 2375, which imposes a cap on the supply, sales or transfer of crude oil to North Korea to the level of the past 12 months, some 4 million barrels, and limits exports of refined petroleum products to the country to 2 million barrels a year. China supplies most of North Korea's crude. "This had the effect of reducing [North Korea's imports of] refined oil by 55% and decreasing the crude oil going into North Korea overall by 30%", he noted.
Meanwhile, ahead of the sanctions, Pyongyang has warned Washington that if harsh sanctions are imposed on North Korea, the USA would have to pay a "due price" for it. It capped North Korea's oil exports, banned textile exports and prohibited countries worldwide from providing new work permits to North Korean workers.
The latest resolution does not include North Korean leader Kim Jong-un or his sister on its blacklist, as initially proposed.